Here we discuss the path integral formalism for quantization of fields. The basic idea is reviewed and explained. This is completely based on the book ``Quantum Field Theory A Modern Introduction" by Michio Kaku. For calculation natural system of units is taken.
Diese Vorlage eignet sich für naturwissenschaftliche W-Seminararbeiten an Gymnasien.
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On the basis of the conclusions selectively gleaned from the history of ontological thought, it was assumed that the real geometry of the space of the Universe is the geometry of topologically fixed 3-dimensional hyper sphere. It claims that the understanding of metaphysical principles of space formation is important, resulting in the simplest mathematical approach to the calculation of actual astronomical distances. The comparisons of calculated lengths of trajectories of photons with the actual intergalactic distances reported by observers for different \(z\)-values are carried out using the selected assumptions. Photon mileage \(L_f = f (L_z, R_D)\) don't equal to the astronomical distance \(L_z\) detected by \(z\) value if \(R_D\) is the discrete quantum length of one of 4 space dimensions, associated with the curvature of space as a whole. The research concludes there is a good agreement between data obtained this way for star brightness with experimental data, when we speak about the hypothesis presupposing an accelerating growth of the Universe and abnormal brightness of supernovae; besides conclusions imply that adjustments to this hypothesis forward in the search of the values of brightness attenuation undetectable by today's tools are needed, otherwise, it could be talk about a possible expansion of our Universe in our era without accelerating.
The future of alternative energy storage for vehicles is
bright because the use of hydrogen in the economy provides
various solutions to environmental situations. Hydrogen is
as flexible as electricity in that it can be produced in both
renewable and non-renewable sources of energy. However,
the literature written focuses on the conditions that are
needed to be accounted for when it comes to switching to
hydrogen as an alternative energy storage using statistical
analysis. By taking an economic and environmental investigation, hydrogen has the best air pollution emissions in
comparison to conventional, hybrid and electric vehicles. It
is also found that hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are simpler in
design which accounts for its weight that is much lighter
than most vehicles. Ergo, hydrogen is the preferred fuel for
fuel cell vehicles because of efficiency that can increase the
potential for a sustainable climate.